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Genealogy HowTo
Issue: Aug 8, 2009

What's in a name? Part 2: Your Surname

by Aubrey Fredrickson

To the family historian, a surname is a precious gift handed down from generation to generation. It links us to our ancestors as well as to the generations that will come after us. It tells us who we are and where we have come from. Do you want to know more about your surname? Where did it originate and what does it mean? We'll be talking about the history and meaning of surnames in this article, as well as addressing some concerns about how to search for your ancestors when the surname spelling may have changed. If you're interested in learning more about your first name and missed Part 1 of this series, click here to read about the traditions and meanings of first names.

Surname History
If you research your family tree far enough back, you'll eventually find some ancestors who didn't have surnames at all. So, when exactly did people start using surnames? The Romans were probably the first people in the western world to use an inherited family name. By 100 BC, Romans typically had three names: the praenomen (first name), the nomen (the name of their gens or clan), and cognomen (the name of a family within the gens). Both the nomen and the cognomen were inherited from the father. Today we are generally known by our first names, with the last name being used in formal situations or to distinguish us from others of the same first name. In Roman culture, however, the praenomen was used only by close family or friends. The nomen was more commonly used, along with the cognomen or a nickname (agnomen) to distinguish people who had the same nomen. So, Julius Caesar's full name was Gaius Julius Caesar and he was from the family Caesar of the gens Julia.

The use of surnames didn't stick around after the Romans were gone, however. The English didn't begin to use surnames until around the 11th century and then the practice is believed to have originated with the Normans, after the invasion of William the Conqueror. Surnames (last names) were first used by the aristocracy and then, eventually, by everyone.

Of course, the use of surnames began at different times in different parts of the world. According to Chinese legend, family names were used in China as early as 2852 BC with the Emperor Fu Xi.

Surname Traditions
Cultures around the world have developed unique traditions for passing surnames from generation to generation. Here in America, it is traditional for a child to take his or her father's surname. Although sometimes the child takes the mother's surname or even both surnames, in which case they are usually hyphenated.

Hispanic surnames are both patronymic and matronymic, meaning that the child inherits both parent's surnames. The father's surname is generally listed first and then the mother's surname. For example, if a girl's name were Marie Lopez Mendez, Lopez would be her father's surname and Mendez her mother's. There is no hyphen and neither name is considered a middle name.

In Asian cultures, the surname is actually the first name, rather than the last. This probably reflects the emphasis these cultures place on family and respect for their ancestors.

And there are still some cultures today that do not use family names, as we think of them. Icelandic names, for example, are based on a traditional patronymic system. If a man's first name is Jón, his son's surname becomes Jónsson and his daughter's Jónsdóttir. The surname changes with each generation. And no surnames are used at all among the Burmese people, who often change their names to reflect an important life event.

Surname Meanings
You've probably wondered what your surname means. In some cases, the meaning is fairly obvious. If your surname is Armstrong, you can probably guess that one of your ancestors was well endowed with muscles in his arms. With many names, however, the meaning might not be so readily apparent. For example, my maiden name is Trivett. As a trivet is something you use in the kitchen, I always assumed the surname had started out as a nickname for someone who liked to cook. However, it turns out that the word trivet comes from a French word which meant tripod, or three footed. (Apparently trivets were originally three-legged metal stands.) So, the name was more likely to have been given as a nickname to someone who walked with a stick, giving them a third "leg."

Surnames were generally derived from one of the following four things:

  • The first name of the person's father. These are known as patronymic names and they're the ones that indicate the bearer was the son of (or daughter of) their father. For example, John Peterson would have been, John who was the son of Peter. Languages throughout the world have patronymic systems where certain prefixes or suffixes indicate parentage. Mc or Mac was used in Scotland, Ireland, and Wales. In Russian names, you'll come across -ovichl, -yevichl, and -yich for men and -yevna, -ovna, or -ichna for women. The prefix ben- means "son of" in Hebrew, while bat- means "daughter of."
  • Place names or descriptions. Your surname might be a description of where your ancestor came from or something about the place where they lived. A last name of Parris might indicate that an ancestor came from Paris, France. Someone with the last name Ashley probably lived near some ash trees.
  • Job descriptions. If John was a blacksmith, he might have been known as John Smith, to differentiate him from the John who drove carts, John Carter. The surname could also have been an indication of social status, such Knight or Squire.
  • Nicknames. Your ancestor might have picked up a nickname based on a physical or personal characteristic that stuck and became the surname. So, if your ancestor was the kind of person people went to for advice, your surname might be Wise. Using a nickname to identify a person was also popular with royalty. There was Richard the Lionheart, John Lackland, Ethelred the Unready, and Ivan the Terrible.
Surname Spellings
In Part 1 we mentioned some of the reasons a name might have been spelled in different ways over time. Let's take a look at an example. I was recently looking up some information on the Clymer family to help a patron. One reason the spelling of a surname might have changed is because for many records, the name was written down by an official, such as a census taker, rather than the individual. The official heard the name and then wrote it down as he had heard it. Look at how the spelling of Clymer varied in the earlier census records.

1900: Israel Clymer
1880: Israel Clymer
1870: Israel Clemen? Clemer?
1860: Abraham Clanner? Clannen?(Israel's dad)
1850: Abraham Clemer

Not only does the spelling change from census to census, but it's hard to read the census taker's handwriting in some cases. Look at the last letter in the 1860 version. What is that letter? An R? An N? Since we know what the surname was supposed to sound like, we can guess that it's an R. But what if we weren't familiar with this particular family and tried to read it?

This leads to another reason you might be having a hard time finding your ancestor. When you search for a record online, you're often searching an index of names that someone else has extracted from the original document. That person probably tried their hardest to get the names right, but may not have succeeded in getting the name right. If you've spent any time staring at old records, you know that sometimes recorders could get pretty creative with the way they formed letters.

One of the big causes of spelling changes in a name was immigration. When your ancestors immigrated to a new country there are several reasons why their name may have changed. Possibly someone in their new country, unfamiliar with a foreign name, misspelled it on an official document and the new spelling stuck. Also, many immigrants chose to change their names in order to make them more acceptable in their new country. Here are some examples of ways that names can change after immigration:

  1. The simplest change is a respelling. When a German Albrecht immigrated to America, the name might have become Albright.
  2. To make a foreign name more acceptable, it might have been translated into a word in the new country that holds the same meaning. An Irishman by the name of Brehony might become Judge in his new country.
  3. If coming from a country with a different alphabet, the name would be transliterated, or written in the alphabet of the new country.
Searching for Surnames
Of course, all these spelling changes can be a real headache for the genealogist. Once you get back a few generations, you can't assume that you know how your ancestor's name will be spelled on records. If you can't find them under the spelling that is now considered correct, you'll have to try some different variations. MyTrees.com has a tool that can make this a lot easier.

When searching on our site, you'll notice the Name Variants button. This is a great resource for finding alternate spellings of a surname. Click on the Name Variants button and enter the surname. Then click the Find Spelling Variants button. You'll get a list of possible spelling variants, based on soundex code. In most cases, this list will be very long. You probably will not want to search on all of the possible variations at once. That's why we've made it possible for you to select which surname variants you'd like to search for. Just go through the list and select the names that you think most likely to be variants of your ancestor's name. Then click the Submit Select button and those variants will automatically be entered into your search. When you submit your search query, our system will automatically search for all of those surname variants at the same time, saving you all the work of searching for them one at a time.

The MyTrees.com Surname browse can also help you to find your ancestor's name. This feature lists all the last names in the archive exactly as they appear in the family history files that have been uploaded. So even if the name has been spelled differently than what you are used to seeing, you may be able to recognize the name variation through the Surname browse index. You can click the name link in the browse results and an automatic search will be done for you.

More Information About Your Surname
To learn more about the origins and meaning of your surname, check out these books and online resources. Also, see parts 1 and 3 of this series. Part 1: Your First Name discusses naming traditions and laws for first names. Part 3: Heraldry and Coats of Arms takes you through the basics of design and history of heraldry.

Books

Find the Coat of Arms for your surname at this site
House of Names: Purchase a 11"x17" scroll containing a history of your surname.

Article written by Aubrey Fredrickson

Copyright © 2011 Fficiency Software, Inc. All rights reserved.
No reproduction of this article may be used without the express written permission of the author.

Newsletters

Select Newsletter by Issue or Topic:

Genealogy HowTo
Issue: Aug 8, 2009

What's in a name? Part 2: Your Surname

by Aubrey Fredrickson

To the family historian, a surname is a precious gift handed down from generation to generation. It links us to our ancestors as well as to the generations that will come after us. It tells us who we are and where we have come from. Do you want to know more about your surname? Where did it originate and what does it mean? We'll be talking about the history and meaning of surnames in this article, as well as addressing some concerns about how to search for your ancestors when the surname spelling may have changed. If you're interested in learning more about your first name and missed Part 1 of this series, click here to read about the traditions and meanings of first names.

Surname History
If you research your family tree far enough back, you'll eventually find some ancestors who didn't have surnames at all. So, when exactly did people start using surnames? The Romans were probably the first people in the western world to use an inherited family name. By 100 BC, Romans typically had three names: the praenomen (first name), the nomen (the name of their gens or clan), and cognomen (the name of a family within the gens). Both the nomen and the cognomen were inherited from the father. Today we are generally known by our first names, with the last name being used in formal situations or to distinguish us from others of the same first name. In Roman culture, however, the praenomen was used only by close family or friends. The nomen was more commonly used, along with the cognomen or a nickname (agnomen) to distinguish people who had the same nomen. So, Julius Caesar's full name was Gaius Julius Caesar and he was from the family Caesar of the gens Julia.

The use of surnames didn't stick around after the Romans were gone, however. The English didn't begin to use surnames until around the 11th century and then the practice is believed to have originated with the Normans, after the invasion of William the Conqueror. Surnames (last names) were first used by the aristocracy and then, eventually, by everyone.

Of course, the use of surnames began at different times in different parts of the world. According to Chinese legend, family names were used in China as early as 2852 BC with the Emperor Fu Xi.

Surname Traditions
Cultures around the world have developed unique traditions for passing surnames from generation to generation. Here in America, it is traditional for a child to take his or her father's surname. Although sometimes the child takes the mother's surname or even both surnames, in which case they are usually hyphenated.

Hispanic surnames are both patronymic and matronymic, meaning that the child inherits both parent's surnames. The father's surname is generally listed first and then the mother's surname. For example, if a girl's name were Marie Lopez Mendez, Lopez would be her father's surname and Mendez her mother's. There is no hyphen and neither name is considered a middle name.

In Asian cultures, the surname is actually the first name, rather than the last. This probably reflects the emphasis these cultures place on family and respect for their ancestors.

And there are still some cultures today that do not use family names, as we think of them. Icelandic names, for example, are based on a traditional patronymic system. If a man's first name is Jón, his son's surname becomes Jónsson and his daughter's Jónsdóttir. The surname changes with each generation. And no surnames are used at all among the Burmese people, who often change their names to reflect an important life event.

Surname Meanings
You've probably wondered what your surname means. In some cases, the meaning is fairly obvious. If your surname is Armstrong, you can probably guess that one of your ancestors was well endowed with muscles in his arms. With many names, however, the meaning might not be so readily apparent. For example, my maiden name is Trivett. As a trivet is something you use in the kitchen, I always assumed the surname had started out as a nickname for someone who liked to cook. However, it turns out that the word trivet comes from a French word which meant tripod, or three footed. (Apparently trivets were originally three-legged metal stands.) So, the name was more likely to have been given as a nickname to someone who walked with a stick, giving them a third "leg."

Surnames were generally derived from one of the following four things:

  • The first name of the person's father. These are known as patronymic names and they're the ones that indicate the bearer was the son of (or daughter of) their father. For example, John Peterson would have been, John who was the son of Peter. Languages throughout the world have patronymic systems where certain prefixes or suffixes indicate parentage. Mc or Mac was used in Scotland, Ireland, and Wales. In Russian names, you'll come across -ovichl, -yevichl, and -yich for men and -yevna, -ovna, or -ichna for women. The prefix ben- means "son of" in Hebrew, while bat- means "daughter of."
  • Place names or descriptions. Your surname might be a description of where your ancestor came from or something about the place where they lived. A last name of Parris might indicate that an ancestor came from Paris, France. Someone with the last name Ashley probably lived near some ash trees.
  • Job descriptions. If John was a blacksmith, he might have been known as John Smith, to differentiate him from the John who drove carts, John Carter. The surname could also have been an indication of social status, such Knight or Squire.
  • Nicknames. Your ancestor might have picked up a nickname based on a physical or personal characteristic that stuck and became the surname. So, if your ancestor was the kind of person people went to for advice, your surname might be Wise. Using a nickname to identify a person was also popular with royalty. There was Richard the Lionheart, John Lackland, Ethelred the Unready, and Ivan the Terrible.
Surname Spellings
In Part 1 we mentioned some of the reasons a name might have been spelled in different ways over time. Let's take a look at an example. I was recently looking up some information on the Clymer family to help a patron. One reason the spelling of a surname might have changed is because for many records, the name was written down by an official, such as a census taker, rather than the individual. The official heard the name and then wrote it down as he had heard it. Look at how the spelling of Clymer varied in the earlier census records.

1900: Israel Clymer
1880: Israel Clymer
1870: Israel Clemen? Clemer?
1860: Abraham Clanner? Clannen?(Israel's dad)
1850: Abraham Clemer

Not only does the spelling change from census to census, but it's hard to read the census taker's handwriting in some cases. Look at the last letter in the 1860 version. What is that letter? An R? An N? Since we know what the surname was supposed to sound like, we can guess that it's an R. But what if we weren't familiar with this particular family and tried to read it?

This leads to another reason you might be having a hard time finding your ancestor. When you search for a record online, you're often searching an index of names that someone else has extracted from the original document. That person probably tried their hardest to get the names right, but may not have succeeded in getting the name right. If you've spent any time staring at old records, you know that sometimes recorders could get pretty creative with the way they formed letters.

One of the big causes of spelling changes in a name was immigration. When your ancestors immigrated to a new country there are several reasons why their name may have changed. Possibly someone in their new country, unfamiliar with a foreign name, misspelled it on an official document and the new spelling stuck. Also, many immigrants chose to change their names in order to make them more acceptable in their new country. Here are some examples of ways that names can change after immigration:

  1. The simplest change is a respelling. When a German Albrecht immigrated to America, the name might have become Albright.
  2. To make a foreign name more acceptable, it might have been translated into a word in the new country that holds the same meaning. An Irishman by the name of Brehony might become Judge in his new country.
  3. If coming from a country with a different alphabet, the name would be transliterated, or written in the alphabet of the new country.
Searching for Surnames
Of course, all these spelling changes can be a real headache for the genealogist. Once you get back a few generations, you can't assume that you know how your ancestor's name will be spelled on records. If you can't find them under the spelling that is now considered correct, you'll have to try some different variations. MyTrees.com has a tool that can make this a lot easier.

When searching on our site, you'll notice the Name Variants button. This is a great resource for finding alternate spellings of a surname. Click on the Name Variants button and enter the surname. Then click the Find Spelling Variants button. You'll get a list of possible spelling variants, based on soundex code. In most cases, this list will be very long. You probably will not want to search on all of the possible variations at once. That's why we've made it possible for you to select which surname variants you'd like to search for. Just go through the list and select the names that you think most likely to be variants of your ancestor's name. Then click the Submit Select button and those variants will automatically be entered into your search. When you submit your search query, our system will automatically search for all of those surname variants at the same time, saving you all the work of searching for them one at a time.

The MyTrees.com Surname browse can also help you to find your ancestor's name. This feature lists all the last names in the archive exactly as they appear in the family history files that have been uploaded. So even if the name has been spelled differently than what you are used to seeing, you may be able to recognize the name variation through the Surname browse index. You can click the name link in the browse results and an automatic search will be done for you.

More Information About Your Surname
To learn more about the origins and meaning of your surname, check out these books and online resources. Also, see parts 1 and 3 of this series. Part 1: Your First Name discusses naming traditions and laws for first names. Part 3: Heraldry and Coats of Arms takes you through the basics of design and history of heraldry.

Books

Find the Coat of Arms for your surname at this site
House of Names: Purchase a 11"x17" scroll containing a history of your surname.

Article written by Aubrey Fredrickson

Copyright © 2011 Fficiency Software, Inc. All rights reserved.
No reproduction of this article may be used without the express written permission of the author.

Newsletters

Select Newsletter by Issue or Topic:

Genealogy HowTo
Issue: Aug 8, 2009

What's in a name? Part 2: Your Surname

by Aubrey Fredrickson

To the family historian, a surname is a precious gift handed down from generation to generation. It links us to our ancestors as well as to the generations that will come after us. It tells us who we are and where we have come from. Do you want to know more about your surname? Where did it originate and what does it mean? We'll be talking about the history and meaning of surnames in this article, as well as addressing some concerns about how to search for your ancestors when the surname spelling may have changed. If you're interested in learning more about your first name and missed Part 1 of this series, click here to read about the traditions and meanings of first names.

Surname History
If you research your family tree far enough back, you'll eventually find some ancestors who didn't have surnames at all. So, when exactly did people start using surnames? The Romans were probably the first people in the western world to use an inherited family name. By 100 BC, Romans typically had three names: the praenomen (first name), the nomen (the name of their gens or clan), and cognomen (the name of a family within the gens). Both the nomen and the cognomen were inherited from the father. Today we are generally known by our first names, with the last name being used in formal situations or to distinguish us from others of the same first name. In Roman culture, however, the praenomen was used only by close family or friends. The nomen was more commonly used, along with the cognomen or a nickname (agnomen) to distinguish people who had the same nomen. So, Julius Caesar's full name was Gaius Julius Caesar and he was from the family Caesar of the gens Julia.

The use of surnames didn't stick around after the Romans were gone, however. The English didn't begin to use surnames until around the 11th century and then the practice is believed to have originated with the Normans, after the invasion of William the Conqueror. Surnames (last names) were first used by the aristocracy and then, eventually, by everyone.

Of course, the use of surnames began at different times in different parts of the world. According to Chinese legend, family names were used in China as early as 2852 BC with the Emperor Fu Xi.

Surname Traditions
Cultures around the world have developed unique traditions for passing surnames from generation to generation. Here in America, it is traditional for a child to take his or her father's surname. Although sometimes the child takes the mother's surname or even both surnames, in which case they are usually hyphenated.

Hispanic surnames are both patronymic and matronymic, meaning that the child inherits both parent's surnames. The father's surname is generally listed first and then the mother's surname. For example, if a girl's name were Marie Lopez Mendez, Lopez would be her father's surname and Mendez her mother's. There is no hyphen and neither name is considered a middle name.

In Asian cultures, the surname is actually the first name, rather than the last. This probably reflects the emphasis these cultures place on family and respect for their ancestors.

And there are still some cultures today that do not use family names, as we think of them. Icelandic names, for example, are based on a traditional patronymic system. If a man's first name is Jón, his son's surname becomes Jónsson and his daughter's Jónsdóttir. The surname changes with each generation. And no surnames are used at all among the Burmese people, who often change their names to reflect an important life event.

Surname Meanings
You've probably wondered what your surname means. In some cases, the meaning is fairly obvious. If your surname is Armstrong, you can probably guess that one of your ancestors was well endowed with muscles in his arms. With many names, however, the meaning might not be so readily apparent. For example, my maiden name is Trivett. As a trivet is something you use in the kitchen, I always assumed the surname had started out as a nickname for someone who liked to cook. However, it turns out that the word trivet comes from a French word which meant tripod, or three footed. (Apparently trivets were originally three-legged metal stands.) So, the name was more likely to have been given as a nickname to someone who walked with a stick, giving them a third "leg."

Surnames were generally derived from one of the following four things:

  • The first name of the person's father. These are known as patronymic names and they're the ones that indicate the bearer was the son of (or daughter of) their father. For example, John Peterson would have been, John who was the son of Peter. Languages throughout the world have patronymic systems where certain prefixes or suffixes indicate parentage. Mc or Mac was used in Scotland, Ireland, and Wales. In Russian names, you'll come across -ovichl, -yevichl, and -yich for men and -yevna, -ovna, or -ichna for women. The prefix ben- means "son of" in Hebrew, while bat- means "daughter of."
  • Place names or descriptions. Your surname might be a description of where your ancestor came from or something about the place where they lived. A last name of Parris might indicate that an ancestor came from Paris, France. Someone with the last name Ashley probably lived near some ash trees.
  • Job descriptions. If John was a blacksmith, he might have been known as John Smith, to differentiate him from the John who drove carts, John Carter. The surname could also have been an indication of social status, such Knight or Squire.
  • Nicknames. Your ancestor might have picked up a nickname based on a physical or personal characteristic that stuck and became the surname. So, if your ancestor was the kind of person people went to for advice, your surname might be Wise. Using a nickname to identify a person was also popular with royalty. There was Richard the Lionheart, John Lackland, Ethelred the Unready, and Ivan the Terrible.
Surname Spellings
In Part 1 we mentioned some of the reasons a name might have been spelled in different ways over time. Let's take a look at an example. I was recently looking up some information on the Clymer family to help a patron. One reason the spelling of a surname might have changed is because for many records, the name was written down by an official, such as a census taker, rather than the individual. The official heard the name and then wrote it down as he had heard it. Look at how the spelling of Clymer varied in the earlier census records.

1900: Israel Clymer
1880: Israel Clymer
1870: Israel Clemen? Clemer?
1860: Abraham Clanner? Clannen?(Israel's dad)
1850: Abraham Clemer

Not only does the spelling change from census to census, but it's hard to read the census taker's handwriting in some cases. Look at the last letter in the 1860 version. What is that letter? An R? An N? Since we know what the surname was supposed to sound like, we can guess that it's an R. But what if we weren't familiar with this particular family and tried to read it?

This leads to another reason you might be having a hard time finding your ancestor. When you search for a record online, you're often searching an index of names that someone else has extracted from the original document. That person probably tried their hardest to get the names right, but may not have succeeded in getting the name right. If you've spent any time staring at old records, you know that sometimes recorders could get pretty creative with the way they formed letters.

One of the big causes of spelling changes in a name was immigration. When your ancestors immigrated to a new country there are several reasons why their name may have changed. Possibly someone in their new country, unfamiliar with a foreign name, misspelled it on an official document and the new spelling stuck. Also, many immigrants chose to change their names in order to make them more acceptable in their new country. Here are some examples of ways that names can change after immigration:

  1. The simplest change is a respelling. When a German Albrecht immigrated to America, the name might have become Albright.
  2. To make a foreign name more acceptable, it might have been translated into a word in the new country that holds the same meaning. An Irishman by the name of Brehony might become Judge in his new country.
  3. If coming from a country with a different alphabet, the name would be transliterated, or written in the alphabet of the new country.
Searching for Surnames
Of course, all these spelling changes can be a real headache for the genealogist. Once you get back a few generations, you can't assume that you know how your ancestor's name will be spelled on records. If you can't find them under the spelling that is now considered correct, you'll have to try some different variations. MyTrees.com has a tool that can make this a lot easier.

When searching on our site, you'll notice the Name Variants button. This is a great resource for finding alternate spellings of a surname. Click on the Name Variants button and enter the surname. Then click the Find Spelling Variants button. You'll get a list of possible spelling variants, based on soundex code. In most cases, this list will be very long. You probably will not want to search on all of the possible variations at once. That's why we've made it possible for you to select which surname variants you'd like to search for. Just go through the list and select the names that you think most likely to be variants of your ancestor's name. Then click the Submit Select button and those variants will automatically be entered into your search. When you submit your search query, our system will automatically search for all of those surname variants at the same time, saving you all the work of searching for them one at a time.

The MyTrees.com Surname browse can also help you to find your ancestor's name. This feature lists all the last names in the archive exactly as they appear in the family history files that have been uploaded. So even if the name has been spelled differently than what you are used to seeing, you may be able to recognize the name variation through the Surname browse index. You can click the name link in the browse results and an automatic search will be done for you.

More Information About Your Surname
To learn more about the origins and meaning of your surname, check out these books and online resources. Also, see parts 1 and 3 of this series. Part 1: Your First Name discusses naming traditions and laws for first names. Part 3: Heraldry and Coats of Arms takes you through the basics of design and history of heraldry.

Books

Find the Coat of Arms for your surname at this site
House of Names: Purchase a 11"x17" scroll containing a history of your surname.

Article written by Aubrey Fredrickson

Copyright © 2011 Fficiency Software, Inc. All rights reserved.
No reproduction of this article may be used without the express written permission of the author.

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